Sustainable Water Solutions
Two methods for the detection of important human pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori, were investigated: a fiber optic biosensor, and real time PCR. The mechanism for specific detection in both methods is recognition of specific DNA sequences in the target organisms. The biosensor that was used, the Analyte 2000, was originally developed for the detection of chemicals. It utilizes a fiber optic wave guide that propagates an evanescent light wave of very specific wavelength. The light excites fluorescent molecules bound to the waveguide, but not in the bulk solution, which theoretically enhances signal while reducing background interference. Attempts to develop this system for the detection of DNA were not successful due to poor detection of the target molecules. An assay analogous to a sandwich immunoassay was designed for use on the Analyte 2000. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to bind to the waveguides via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and were used to capture the target DNA. Pure target DNA representing unique genes in the organisms were synthesized by PCR. Detection of captured DNA was then attempted using an oligonucleotide detection probe designed to bind to the target. Two detection systems were employed: an indirect signal amplification system based on biotin-tyramide deposition, or direct detection of fluorescent signal from Cy-5 molecules. In all experiments performed there was very little difference between the signal generated with or without the target molecules. Many experiments were conducted to attempt to identify reasons for the poor signal. Signal was only of any significance when target amplicons were internally labeled with Cy-5 by PCR. Real time PCR as a method to detect the pathogens was also investigated. Though the PCR technique itself is very rapid, DNA extraction and purification requires preparation time. Filtration of up to one liter of well water, followed by concentration and "cleaning" Helicobacter pylori cells by immunomagnetic separation, was used to detect H. pylori seeded in a water source. Following cell lysis, the extracted DNA could be used directly in conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene to detect less than 265 cells per liter of water. DNA purification was not required for this level of detection. Initial studies to amplify lysed cells by real time PCR indicated that an incorrect product was made. When purified DNA was used for real time PCR, the correct product was produced from DNA representing as few as 100 cells. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
As the First International Conference on Water and Ions in Biological Systems (Bucharest, June 25-27, 1980) was appreciated as a success, a second one was organized in the fall of the year 1982 under the sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences, the Romanian Biophysical Society (Union of Societies for Medical Sciences in the Socialist Republic of Romania) and in co- operation with the International Union for Pure and Applied Bio- physics (IUPAB). The responsibility for the scientific program and organization of the Second Conference on Water fell on an International Scientific Committee which included Prof. J. Tigyi (Pees), President of the UNESCO Expert Committee on Biophysics, Prof. K. Wuthrich, Secretary General of IUPAB and Prof. H. Eisenberg, (member of the IUPAB Council) under the guidance of an Executive Board whose members were Prof. J. Jaz (representative of UNESCO), Prof. B. Pullman (Vice- President of IUPAB) and Prof. V. Vasilescu (President of the Romanian Biophysical Society). The Meeting was attended by more than 250 specialists including 150 Romanian participants and others from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, England, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR, USA, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. The proceedings of the Conference took place in the Medical Faculty of Bucharest. The theoretical and practical importance of the Meeting was pointed out by the speakers, among whom were Prof.
Once a purely technical sub-discipline of hydrology, water quality management is now a social and political discipline, with concerns ranging from ensuring adequate health standards to preserving biological diversity and ecosystem integrity. This book goes beyond the technical manuals and specialty publications to provide support and guidance for the everyday decisions made by water-quality managers. <b>Water Quality: Management of a Natural Resource</b> addresses the rarely touched upon social, biophysical, land-use and policy considerations, which reflect the issues that confront managers and decision-makers. In a series of incisive reviews, experts address key topics in modern water resource management and case studies illustrate the successes and failures of past management efforts. <b>Water Quality: Management of a Natural Resource</b> develops and presents a management view requiring an awareness of: the social context of management, new ecological theories, and how policy is implemented in different situations and countries.
Many books in linear algebra focus purely on getting students through exams, but this text explains both the how and the why of linear algebra and enables students to begin thinking like mathematicians. The author demonstrates how different topics (geometry, abstract algebra, numerical analysis, physics) make use of vectors in different ways and how these ways are connected, preparing students for further work in these areas. The book is packed with hundreds of exercises ranging from the routine to the challenging. Sketch solutions of the easier exercises are available online.
When Barbara Toboni takes a trip back to Guam in 2010, she finds what remains of the family's first home abandoned and barely visible, ravaged by many years of storms. The house becomes a symbol for the author inspiring her to write poetry and short prose about her life on the island spanning twelve years. Memories are clear and portray Barbara's coming of age as she grows from pre-teen to young woman.
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