Sustainable Water Solutions
Intensive research carried out during the 1990's (known as the "Iron Age of Oceanography") provided a wealth of new information and this title, written by acknowledged experts and reviewed by international specialists, provides the authoritative and comprehensive review of the subject area.<br> <br> A joint venture between SCOR and IUPAC, it expertly addresses the current state of knowledge of the biogeochemistry of iron in seawater and covers:<br> <br> * Chemical speciation<br> * Analytical techniques<br> * Transformation of iron<br> * It includes evidence for iron limitation of primary production of High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) areas in the ocean<br> * Structured into a series of chapters it has been reviewed by international specialists- SCOR (Scientific Committee for Ocean Research) and IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry)<br> * The final chapter summarises the conclusions of the book and discusses the priorities for future research<br> * Ideal for scientists studying the environmental impact of metals and their role in marine ecosystems; Marine Scientists and Oceanographers; Environmental Analytical Chemists
As the First International Conference on Water and Ions in Biological Systems (Bucharest, June 25-27, 1980) was appreciated as a success, a second one was organized in the fall of the year 1982 under the sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences, the Romanian Biophysical Society (Union of Societies for Medical Sciences in the Socialist Republic of Romania) and in co- operation with the International Union for Pure and Applied Bio- physics (IUPAB). The responsibility for the scientific program and organization of the Second Conference on Water fell on an International Scientific Committee which included Prof. J. Tigyi (Pees), President of the UNESCO Expert Committee on Biophysics, Prof. K. Wuthrich, Secretary General of IUPAB and Prof. H. Eisenberg, (member of the IUPAB Council) under the guidance of an Executive Board whose members were Prof. J. Jaz (representative of UNESCO), Prof. B. Pullman (Vice- President of IUPAB) and Prof. V. Vasilescu (President of the Romanian Biophysical Society). The Meeting was attended by more than 250 specialists including 150 Romanian participants and others from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, England, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR, USA, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. The proceedings of the Conference took place in the Medical Faculty of Bucharest. The theoretical and practical importance of the Meeting was pointed out by the speakers, among whom were Prof.
Two methods for the detection of important human pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori, were investigated: a fiber optic biosensor, and real time PCR. The mechanism for specific detection in both methods is recognition of specific DNA sequences in the target organisms. The biosensor that was used, the Analyte 2000, was originally developed for the detection of chemicals. It utilizes a fiber optic wave guide that propagates an evanescent light wave of very specific wavelength. The light excites fluorescent molecules bound to the waveguide, but not in the bulk solution, which theoretically enhances signal while reducing background interference. Attempts to develop this system for the detection of DNA were not successful due to poor detection of the target molecules. An assay analogous to a sandwich immunoassay was designed for use on the Analyte 2000. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to bind to the waveguides via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and were used to capture the target DNA. Pure target DNA representing unique genes in the organisms were synthesized by PCR. Detection of captured DNA was then attempted using an oligonucleotide detection probe designed to bind to the target. Two detection systems were employed: an indirect signal amplification system based on biotin-tyramide deposition, or direct detection of fluorescent signal from Cy-5 molecules. In all experiments performed there was very little difference between the signal generated with or without the target molecules. Many experiments were conducted to attempt to identify reasons for the poor signal. Signal was only of any significance when target amplicons were internally labeled with Cy-5 by PCR. Real time PCR as a method to detect the pathogens was also investigated. Though the PCR technique itself is very rapid, DNA extraction and purification requires preparation time. Filtration of up to one liter of well water, followed by concentration and "cleaning" Helicobacter pylori cells by immunomagnetic separation, was used to detect H. pylori seeded in a water source. Following cell lysis, the extracted DNA could be used directly in conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene to detect less than 265 cells per liter of water. DNA purification was not required for this level of detection. Initial studies to amplify lysed cells by real time PCR indicated that an incorrect product was made. When purified DNA was used for real time PCR, the correct product was produced from DNA representing as few as 100 cells. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
"Making your own baby food is not only more economical than buying commercial brands you can be sure that your baby has only the best-quality ingredients. This essential collection of Annabel's best ever purees features 60 quick and easy recipes that will make for a healthy and happy baby. From sweet and smooth apple, apricot, pear and vanilla, through savoury purees such as sweet potato with spinach and peas, to the autumnal delights of peach, pear and blueberry, all the recipes are suitable for babies aged 6 months and above, and are so tasty you will want to eat them yourself! "
A comprehensive reference on state-of-the-art risk assessment methodologies for drinking water<br> <br> <i>Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water</i> discusses the major steps and goals in risk assessments and suggests ways to improve the methodologies and accuracy, while consolidating up-to-date information on the current principles and practices in one authoritative reference. After an enlightening overview of risk assessment practices and regulatory guidelines, it:<ul> <LI> Includes descriptions of the use of variability analysis, exposure analysis, physiologically based pharmacokinetics, and modeling for both cancer and non-cancer endpoints <LI> Describes the practices of major organizations, including the U.S. EPA, Health Canada, World Health Organization, and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment <LI> Includes complete chapters on risk assessment for essential nutrients, arsenic, chloroform, and perchlorate <LI> Explains how to address susceptible sub-populations, including the elderly and infants and children, in risk assessments <LI> Covers the potential of using genomic and proteomic screens <LI> Addresses recent advances, emerging issues, and future challenges </ul> With contributions and perspectives from leading scientists, this is the definitive resource for health and environmental scientists, toxicologists, risk assessors and managers, regulators, consultants, and other professionals responsible for the safety of drinking water.
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Sustainable Water Solutions