Sustainable Water Solutions
Recent technical innovations and significant cost reductions have sharply increased the potential for using Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) technology in municipal wastewater treatment. MBR technology displays several advantages compared to the traditional activated sludge processes, such as high effluent quality, limited space requirement and with the possibility of a flexible and phased extension of existing waste water treatment plants. Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment describes the results of a comparative research programme involving four leading membrane suppliers: Kubota (Japan), Mitsubishi (Japan), X-Flow (Netherlands) and Zenon (Canada). Each supplier provided a pilot to represent a suitable scale - right up to full scale. These pilots were operated and optimised in the course of the research programme to achieve the best operating window under different operating regimes. The research focussed on the functionality of the membrane, the biological treatment, membrane fouling, achieved effluent quality, and system operability as well as other factors. In a number of side studies the required pre-treatment, membrane fouling/cleaning, energy usage, effluent quality and sludge processing were also addressed. The comparative pilot research was carried out by DHV Water on location at the wastewater treatment plant at Beverwijk in the Netherlands.
Water is essential for all life on Earth. But clean water for drinking, washing, growing food and making things is becoming harder and harder to find. You'll learn about how people find water, even in very dry places. This book gives you the low-down on why water is so important for us all.
The fine estuary which penetrates the American coast, between the fortieth and forty-first degrees of latitude, is formed by the confluence of the Hudson, the Hackensack, the Passaic, the Raritan, and a multitude of smaller streams; all of which pour their tribute into the ocean, within the space named. The islands of Nassau and Staten are happily placed to exclude the tempests of the open sea, while the deep and broad arms of the latter offer every desirable facility for foreign trade and internal intercourse. To this fortunate disposition of land and water, with a temperate climate, a central position, and an immense interior, that is now penetrated, in every direction, either by artificial or by natural streams, the city of New-York is indebted for its extraordinary prosperity. Though not wanting in beauty, there are many bays that surpass this in the charms of scenery; but it may be questioned if the world possesses another site that unites so many natural advantages for the growth and support of a widely extended commerce. As if never wearied with her kindness, Nature has placed the island of Manhattan at the precise point that is most desirable for the position of a town. Millions might inhabit the spot, and yet a ship should load near every door; and while the surface of the land just possesses the inequalities that are required for health and cleanliness, its bosom is filled with the material most needed in construction.
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