The fresh water crisis is the new environmental crisis of the 21st century. By 2050, 993 million people are projected to live in cities with perennial water shortages; 3.1 billion will confront seasonal water shortages within their urban areas. The traditional legal principles upon which existing water management is based are likely to be insufficient to deal with the water problems that loom from projected climate change, population growth, food production, increased industrialization, and ecosystem needs.
The inorganic and organic water constituents, often called color-producing agents (CPAs), responsible for water color are generally referred to as water quality parameters. Utilization of water color for assessment of water quality parameters can be achieved by using the established techniques in aquatic optics attained over many decades. Aquatic optics can be subdivided according to whether the natural water body is salty (marine), inland or fresh (limnological), or coastal (often brackish). The authors describe the transformation of water color under varying natural and anthropogenically-driven conditions and, for the first time in a quantitative manner, a closed circle of issues related to remote sensing of water quality in optically complex waters generally inherent to inland and marine coastal waters. Primarily, the text synthesizes the solutions of problems in remote sensing, incorporating mathematics, hydrobiology/hydochemistry, atmospheric optics and ecology.
This work determines the processes that strengthen hostility between opposing groups and identifies those who are willing to act in order to change these situations. The backdrop of the Arab-Israeli conflict is used to demonstrate how collective identities are shaped by membership in ethnic and religious groups, and how these identities influence attitudes and behavior. It examines political attitudes, hatred of others, and willingness to assume responsibility for the various social issues of this conflict. This book takes a fresh approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict by relating it to three distinct societies: Jews, Arabs, and Palestinians. Though it deals with conflict, this assessment is optimistic in the sense that it shows that bridges can be built and maintained among these groups. These bridges are still small and fragile, but may be the structures upon which more elaborate relationships may be developed.
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Dora Imogene Stewart was born at home in 1919. Throughout her growing up years, in the 1920s and the depression years of the '30s, her family moved from place to place, and state to state. As the result of these frequent moves she didn't start school until she was eight years old and after she had finished the 8th grade her mother ended her schooling. As her mother put it at the time, "There's no need for a woman to go to high school." More importantly Dora Imogene was needed at home to help her mother with household chores and caring for several younger siblings. At seventeen she eloped to escape her domineering mother and a year later in January 1938 she was an eighteen year old mother. By the time she was divorced at thirty-seven in 1956 she had six children. She went on, with a job in a small town factory, to buy and pay for her own house (she even managed to pay the mortgage off three years early) and to raise her children on her own. She put in thirty-one years at the factory before retiring at the age of sixty-two in 1981. She enjoyed a long, well-earned retirement. At sixty-seven she hiked the Grand Canyon. She enjoyed her grandchildren and great grandchildren ... by the time she reached her eighties she had over sixty descendants. That count is now over seventy ... and still growing. Her married life started on a winter day in January 1937 when she left a water bucket at a well
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