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Treated wastewater effluents contain high concentrations of particles; many of these particles are large (with diameters greater than 100 m) and consist of densely-packed bacterial cells. Microorganisms occluded in wastewater particles can be difficult to inactivate in chlorine disinfection systems, as the chlorine must first diffuse through the macro- and microscopic pore spaces prior to inactivating the occluded microorganisms. The impact of microorganisms occluded in particles is evident in disinfection, where reduced inactivation rates occur even with increasing doses of the disinfectant. Reduction of occluded microorganisms in plant effluents can be accomplished using filtration to remove the total number of particles, and disinfection to ensure that intra-particle chlorine concentrations are sufficient to inactivate the occluded microorganisms.
In addition to addressing inactivation of dispersed microorganisms, treatment systems design and operation should include consideration of the removal of microorganisms in wastewater particles that may pose a health risk in post-treated waters. In this project, a systematic approach was developed to co-optimize filtration and chemical disinfection systems to collectively reduce the concentration of occluded viable microorganisms in treated effluents to acceptable levels. The optimization process was successfully applied to wastewater samples collected from seven facilities, each with different treatment trains. A range of operating conditions was identified that resulted in acceptable treatment based on particle guidelines developed using the existent regulatory framework for indicator organisms. Extension of the current approach to a pathogen basis was considered, but current data are insufficient to adopt such a procedure although preliminary results suggest that intra-particle chlorine concentrations that are sufficient to inactivate indicator organisms may not be adequate to sufficiently reduce concentrations of occluded pathogens.
This book focuses on sterilizing grade filters in the biopharmaceutical industry, emphasizing practical applications of universal and dependable operational protocols, integrity testing, and troubleshooting to streamline the production and preparation of pharmaceuticals.
Addresses the complexities of globalizing redundancy in filtration
Enabling educated developmental, procedural, and regulatory judgments to be made in the manufacturing of sterile health care products, Sterile Filtration
considers how many filters should be in the process stream
examines the existence of nanobacteria and viable but nonculturable organisms
covers pore size designations, distributions, architecture, and numbers
discusses the latest findings in bubble point and diffuse flow measurements
describes pre- and postfiltration, up- and downstream testing, and after-stream sterilizations
details wetting liquid, polymer, temperature, and water purity effects
explains sieve retention, size exclusion, adsorptive sequestrations, charge-related phenomena, gravitational settling, and interference factors in liquids and gases
outlines filter validation, requirements, and operational specifics
Advocating separation in addition to physical destruction of microorganisms, Sterile Filtration is a reference essential for pharmaceutical scientists; biotechnologists; microbiologists; virologists; process and chemical engineers; plant, production, validation, and quality control managers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate school students in these disciplines.
The number-one environmental threat to public health, air pollution remains a pressing problem-made even more complicated by the massive quantity and diversity of air pollution sources.
Biofiltration technology (using micro-organisms growing on porous media) is being recognized as one of the most advantageous means to convert pollutants to harmless products. Done properly, biofiltration works at a reasonable cost-utilizing inexpensive components, without requiring fuel or generating hazardous by-products.
Firmly established in Europe, biofiltration techniques are being increasingly applied in North America: Biofiltration for Air Pollution Control offers the necessary knowledge to "do it right."
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