Laser processing of solid materials has been commonly performed in gas ambient. Having the workpiece immersed into liquid, having a liquid film on it, or soaking the material with liquid gives several advantages such as removal of the debris, lowering the heat load on the workpiece, and confining the vapour and plasma, resulting in higher shock pressure on the surface.
Two methods for the detection of important human pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori, were investigated: a fiber optic biosensor, and real time PCR. The mechanism for specific detection in both methods is recognition of specific DNA sequences in the target organisms. The biosensor that was used, the Analyte 2000, was originally developed for the detection of chemicals. It utilizes a fiber optic wave guide that propagates an evanescent light wave of very specific wavelength. The light excites fluorescent molecules bound to the waveguide, but not in the bulk solution, which theoretically enhances signal while reducing background interference. Attempts to develop this system for the detection of DNA were not successful due to poor detection of the target molecules. An assay analogous to a sandwich immunoassay was designed for use on the Analyte 2000. Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to bind to the waveguides via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and were used to capture the target DNA. Pure target DNA representing unique genes in the organisms were synthesized by PCR. Detection of captured DNA was then attempted using an oligonucleotide detection probe designed to bind to the target. Two detection systems were employed: an indirect signal amplification system based on biotin-tyramide deposition, or direct detection of fluorescent signal from Cy-5 molecules. In all experiments performed there was very little difference between the signal generated with or without the target molecules. Many experiments were conducted to attempt to identify reasons for the poor signal. Signal was only of any significance when target amplicons were internally labeled with Cy-5 by PCR. Real time PCR as a method to detect the pathogens was also investigated. Though the PCR technique itself is very rapid, DNA extraction and purification requires preparation time. Filtration of up to one liter of well water, followed by concentration and "cleaning" Helicobacter pylori cells by immunomagnetic separation, was used to detect H. pylori seeded in a water source. Following cell lysis, the extracted DNA could be used directly in conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene to detect less than 265 cells per liter of water. DNA purification was not required for this level of detection. Initial studies to amplify lysed cells by real time PCR indicated that an incorrect product was made. When purified DNA was used for real time PCR, the correct product was produced from DNA representing as few as 100 cells. This publication can be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below
30 Delicious & Healthy Fruit Infused Water Recipes
30 Fruit Infused Water Recipes is an all in one solution to get started making your own fruit fruit infusions - no special equipment required!. Get started and download your copy now!
Download is FREE for Kindle unlimited users.
Have great fun and improve your health by making our delicious recipes such as our Green Tea & Cool Mint Rapid Detox - great for flushing toxins. Or maybe try our recipe for a Sweet & Fruity Immunity Booster - great for preventing colds!
"...Drinking fruit infused water is the best way to hydrate yourself whilst boosting your intake of essential vitamins for health, detox, weight loss and internal cleansing..."
30 Fruit Infused Water Recipes tells you exactly how to create your own fruit infused water combinations step by step. It's so easy to get started doing this and you probably have everything you need in your kitchen already!
Take a look at the BENEFITS of drinking Fruit Infused Water:
You take in important vitamins. Ever heard that when you cook vegetables, you shouldn't leave them to soak first? And when you have boiled them, you should keep and consume the water as gravy? This is because that a process known as osmosis happens when fruit, or vegetables are added to water. The important nutrients contained within them are transferred to the water they are soaking in.
Makes you feel fuller, so you don't at as much, leading to weight loss and weight maintenance.
Helps you lose weight. Fruit infused water provides a range of different nutrients, whilst at the same time, being naturally low in calories and sugar. A must for any weight loss diet - including a low carbohydrate diet!
Improves your mood. Makes you feel happier naturally.
The added nutrients flush toxins from your system faster than normal water.
It tastes better!
Provides a natural immune boost. Especially water infused with citrus fruits which contain vitamin C which has been proven to be great for immunity.
It is naturally sugar free. Fruit contains natural sugars which impart a small amount of sweetness into the water.
There are virtually unlimited combinations. Never get bored of drinking plain water again!
Helps you to follow an alkaline diet. So many fruit juices and alcohol are acidic and cause an acidic reaction within the body. Fruit infused water is the opposite and creates an alkaline reaction in the body. An alkaline system is one which is better able to resist autoimmune diseases and undesired conditions.
And much more!! Download our book now and discover more about how good this water is for you - and how you can get started with our deliciously refreshing recipes!
Take a look at some of the recipes inside this book:
Green Tea & Cool Mint Rapid Detox
Rainbow Citrus Blast
Pear & Vanilla Dream
Cardamom-Rose Ice Water
Sweet & Fruity Immunity Booster
So what are you waiting for? Order Your recipe book now and cleanse and purify your system with our delicious fruit infused water recipes!
The seventy-five refereed papers in this volume represent the second in a series of biannual benchmarks for technologies that maximize energy conversion while minimizing undesirable emissions. Covering the entire range of industrial and transport combustion as well as strategies for energy R&D, these state-of-the-art contributions will be indispensable to mechanical and chemical engineers in academia and industry, and technical personnel in military, energy, and environmental agencies of government.
These three volumes present an original exploration of all aspects of water--social, cultural, political, religious, historical, economic and technological--from ancient times until the present day. Among the varied themes, the contributors examine the changing histories of water as a private or common good, the politics of water at local, urban, national and international level, water in cities, great river plans, dams, river biographies, and cultural constructions of water--images of water in religion, myth, literature and art. With empirical and ethnographic case studies from around the world the three volumes together represent one of the most complete and up to date accounts of the central role of water in the history and development of humanity.
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